Design and development of fuel atomizer for diesel engine with ethanol-diesel as bi-fuel mode.

Comments · 946 Views

1.1) Problem Summary:-
 There are four stages of combustion.
1. Ignition Delay
2. Uncontrolled Combustion
3. Controlled Combustion
4. After Burning
Figure 1 :- Combustion stages of CI engine
 The ignition delay is usually defined as the time between the co


Problem Definition

LIterature Review

Canvas Preparation


of Fuel preheater

Manufacturing of Heater

Implimantation Testing on single cylinder diesel engine



2.1) Development Procedure :


Design thinking has come to be defined as combining empathy for the context of problem, creativity in the generation of insights and solutions, and relationality in analyzing and fitting various the problem contexts.

During this semester we carry out the following design engineering canvas activities related to our project to identify and filter out good ideas and project definition to work upon :

1. AEIOU Summary

2. Empathy Mapping

3. Ideation

4. Product Development


2.2.1)AEIOU Summary Canvas :

AEIOU is a frequently used framework for guiding and structuring observational research. The frameworks create a taxonomy of observation under the themes of:-

1. A (Activities): includes information about various activities that are done while product is in use.

2. E (Environment): has the information about the environment in which product is used.

3. I (Interaction): this sheet tells us how the various users interact with one another and also the objects through which they interact.

4. O (Object): includes information about the various object that are used in product.

5. U (User): it tells us about the various users that are going to use the product after it has been made.



Figure 7 :- AEIOU Summary Canvas

2.2.2) Empathy Mapping Canvas :

At this stage we discover and learn about the emotional aspect of our users. This stage involves use of empathy mapping:-



1. Deciding users: - Here we just focus on gaining understanding of the user who is going to use our product.

2. List of activities: - Based on observation of user‟ work/daily routine, we have listed all activities that user does.

3. Story Boarding: - The story boarding is an activity where it is needed to incorporate emotions related with the activities and users, stakeholders identified. The story made up here tells about emotional attachments including historical aspects connected (maybe) however, it is lacking of an on hand experience of a user (may be hypothetical/ assumed case) at present.

4. Stakeholders: - Stakeholders are all those people who are involved directly or indirectly in particular activity.


Figure 8 :- Empathy Mapping Canvas 23

2.2.3)Ideation Canvas :

At this stage we have expanded our list of user activities to list all possible new situations, conditions that users faces or may face.

1. Activities: - The activities which had identified at the empathy stage are listed down on ideation canvas in this section.

2. People: - Looking forward to two words Property in concern and Heritage Value (retention), a set of different people involved was peeped into. We came out with idea on involvement of people.

3. Context/Situation/Location: - Looking forward towards Property in concern and Heritage Value (retention), a set of different people involved was peeped into. We came out with following idea on involvement of people.

4. Props/Possible solution:- This section of the Ideation Canvas help in carving out different requirement in-line with attempting/ looking forward to have an idea about addressing a problem.


Figure 9 :- Ideation Canvas 24

2.2.4)Product Development Canvas :

Product development canvas helps us to start building a structure of our product around the aspects of the user. Building solutions around the aspects of user is central to design thinking.

1. Product function and features: - In this section we have made a list of solution and group it into function and features. Functions are broad level action of our product and features are specific ways in which these functions are supported, powered.

2. Components, prototyping validation: - At this stage we have completed product development tree. User experience Functions Features Components and then use the same to create initial models for our solution.

3. Prototype redesign: - Post receiving the customer feedback validating or invalidating the function- features of our solution, we have moved to make changes to our solution as per the feedback.


Figure 10 :- Product Development Canvas 25

2.3) Layout of Fuel supply system :

In case of CI engine only air is sucked during its suction stroke. After compressing the air in the compression stroke, the fuel is injected under high pressure before the end of compression stroke with help of fuel pump.

The CI engine demands that the fuel injection system should be able to atomise the fuel into fine particles, to inject the fuel at diesel rate to provide the fuel as per the load and speed on the engine, to distribute the fuel uniformly throughout the combustion chamber and the injection system should start and terminate instantaneously.

Therefore, it becomes the most vital component in the working system.







Figure 12:- Layout Of Fuel Supply System




For designing of fuel pre-heater first we are trying to find amount of heat energy required for heating so that fuel can be supplied in saturated liquid form.

After selecting properties of saturated liquid fuel we will design the pre-heater based on maximum pressure and temperature limitation of fuel injector. Then we will develop a fuel pre-heater and prepare a setup to perform testing on single cylinder diesel engine.


2.4) CFD Modeling Analysis of nozzle :

In CFD modelling of nozzle first we determine fluid domain.

We applied meshing on the model.

Currently we are working on analysis phase in which we will apply boundry conditions for flow and analyze outlet condition of flow at which temperature and pressure fine atomization or vaporization take place.


2.4.1) Model :

Figure 11 :- Model 27

Figure 12 :- Detailed view of model

2.4.2) Analysis of fuel flow in Cylinder :

design of pre-heater on the base of injection parameters needed in fulfilling our requirement.

we designed an injector .

we did a CFD analysis on injector to get vapor at its nozzle output on exact time of injection.

It took up to three months to do analysis and applying all iterations to get desired Flashing point.

But, we didn‟t get the results we desired.


Figure 13 :- Contours of volume fraction of vapor 28

Figure 14 :- Contour of volume fraction of vapor on section plane

2.4.3) Design of fuel pre-heater :

For maximum pressure temperature we design metal block through which fuel will flow. The principle of induction heater is based on magnetic induction phenomenon.

1. The current is passed through the induction plate.

2. It produces magnetic field lines around it. The metal block placed on the plate which consist of heating coil, is getting heated as it cuts the magnetic field lines.

3. The eddy current produces in the metal block, which results in heat generation in the block, which contributes in giving the sensible heat to the fuel pass through it.

4. The output flow induction heater is further supplied to the fuel injector.


2.4.4) Design Procedure :

We are designing pre-heater for maximum temperature and pressure of our fuel injector.

Properties of fuels:-


Table 5 :- Properties of Diesel and Ethanol Fuel



Density at 20 C

730 Kg/m3

788 Kg/m3


43,000 KJ/Kg

26,800 KJ/Kg

Viscosity at 40 C

2.6 mm2 /s

1.2 mm2 /s